Section 1 English-Chinese Translation(Translate the following passage into Chinese.)
1.Historians and many members of the public already know that Winston Churchill often took high-stakes gambles in his political life. Some, like the disastrous Dardanelles campaign — an audacious attempt he masterminded at the Admiralty to seize the straits of Gallipoli and knock Turkey out of the first world war — he got wrong. Others, notably his decision as prime minister in 1940 to hold out against Nazi Germany until America came to rescue Britain, he got spectacularly right. But the extent to which Churchill was a gambler in other spheres of his life has tended not to catch his biographers' attention. Two new books attempt to fill this gap. The first is”No More Champagne” by David Lough, a private-banker-tumed-historian who looks at Churchill's personal finances during the ups and downs of his career. Mr. Lough has trawled through Churchill's personal accounts and found that he was as much a risk-taker when it came to his money as he was when he was making decisions at the Admiralty or in Downing Street. Although Churchill was descended from the Dukes of Marlborough, his parents had “very little money on either side” 一 though that never stopped them living the high life. Neither did it hamper the young Churchill; he spent wildly on everything from polo ponies to Havana cigars, a habit he picked up as a war correspondent in Cuba. It is no wonder, then, that Churchill spent most of his life leaping from one cash flow crisis to another, being perennially behind with his suppliers5 bills. Another new book, “Winston Churchill Reporting”,by Simon Read, an American journalist, looks at one of the ways Churchill eventually paid some of them: writing. Mr. Read investigates how Churchill went from a young army officer cadet to being Britain's highest-earning war correspondent by the age of 25. It was the extent to which the young reporter was willing to take risks on battlefields across the world that marked out his columns from those of his contemporaries. Both books manage to tell their tales of Churchill the adventurer and gambler elegantly. And for a financial biography, Mr. Lough's is a surprising page-turner. But the two authors only briefly link their assessments of Churchill's personality to the important decisions he made in office. Although their stories are worth telling, they have left bigger questions about Churchill to other historians.
2.The countries that minted the most female college graduates in fields like science, engineering, or math were also some of the least gender-equal countries. According to a paper by Gijsbert Stoet and David Geary, psychologists at Leeds Beckett University and the University of Missouri respectively, this is because the countries that empower women also empower them, indirectly, to pick whatever career they'd enjoy most and be best at. "Countries with the highest gender equality tend to be welfare states," they write, "with a high level of social security." Meanwhile, less gender-equal countries tend to also have less social support for people who, for example, find themselves unemployed. Thus, the authors suggest, girls in those countries might be more inclined to choose stem professions, since they offer a more certain financial future than，say, painting or writing. When the experts looked at the "overall life satisfaction" rating of each country — a measure of economic opportunity and hardship — they found that gender-equal countries had more life satisfaction. The life-satisfaction ranking explained 35 percent of the variation between gender equality and women's participation in stem. That correlation echoes past research showing that the genders are actually more segregated by field of study in more economically developed places. The upshot of this research is neither especially feminist nor especially sad: Ifs not that gender equality discourages girls from pursuing science. Ifs that it allows them not to if they're not interested. The findings will likely seem controversial, since the idea that men and women have different inherent abilities is often used as a reason, by some，to argue we should forget trying to recruit more women into the stem fields. But, as the University of Wisconsin gender- studies professor Janet Shibley Hyde put it, that9s not quite what's happening here. "Some would say that the gender stem gap occurs not because girls can't do science， but because they have other alternatives, based on their strengths in verbal skills," she said. ''In wealthy nations, they believe that they have the freedom to pursue those alternatives and not worry so much that they pay less." Instead, this line of research, if it’s replicated, might hold useful takeaways for people who do want to see more Western women entering stem fields. In this study, the percentage of girls who did excel in science or math was still larger than the number of women who were graduating with stem degrees. That means there’s something in even the most liberal societies that’s nudging women away from math and science, even when those are their best subjects. The women-in-stem advocates could, for starters, focus their efforts on those would-be stem stars.
Section 2 Chinese-English Translation(Translate the following passage into English.)
1.中國共產黨十一屆三中全會解放了思想，沖破了舊有體制的制約和舊有觀念的束 縛，打開了中國改革開放的總閘門。從那時起，改革的力量就像洪水一樣奔涌而出， 為中國沖開了一條富強之路。40年來，中國用無數個“第一”，標記了改革開放的進 程，為這一波瀾壯闊的歷程做出了完美的詮釋。1987年，肯德基在北京開業，中國人 第一次不出國門品嘗“洋快餐”。1990年，上海證券交易所掛牌營業，標志著中國資本市場正式啟動。2001年，中國正式加入WTO,加速融入國際社會，推動經濟發展進 入全球化的快車道。 中國命運的改變始于40年前的那次會議，但40年來中國所取得的巨大進步，卻不是一蹴而就，而是中國人民用辛勤的汗水踏踏實實干出來的;改革開放也不是一次變革，而是一條不會停下的發展道路。中國慶祝改革開放40年，也是從新的歷史起點上再出發。考生如果怕自己錯過考試報名時間和考試時間的話，可以 免費預約短信提醒，屆時會以短信的方式提醒大家報名和考試時間。
2.……文明是多彩的，人類文明因多樣才有交流互鑒的價值。陽光有七種顏色，世界也是多彩的。一個國家和民族的文明是一個國家和民族的集體記憶。人類在漫長的 歷史長河中，創造和發展了多姿多彩的文明。從茹毛飲血到田園農耕，從工業革命到信息社會，構成了波瀾壯闊的文明圖譜，書寫了激蕩人心的文明華章。 “一花獨放不是春，百花齊放春滿園。”……不論是中華文明，還是世界上存在 的其他文明，都是人類文明創造的成果。 我參觀過法國盧浮宮，也參觀過中國故宮博物院，它們珍藏著千萬件藝術珍品， 吸引人們眼球的正是其展現的多樣文明成果。文明交流互鑒不應該以獨尊某一種文明 或者貶損某一種文明為前提。中國人在2000多年前就認識到了 “物之不齊，物之情也”的道理。推動文明交流互鑒，可以豐富人類文明的色彩，讓各國人民享受更富內 涵的精神生活、開創更有選擇的未來。